Aviation Turbine Fuel (Jet Fuel)
Kerosine ‘Jet’ fuels have been developed from the illuminating kerosine used in the early gas turbine engines. These engines needed a fuel with good combustion characteristics and a high energy content.
The kerosine type fuels used in civil aviation nowadays are mainly Jet A-1 and Jet A. The latter has a higher freezing point (minimum –40°C instead of minimum –47°C) and is available only in the U.S.A.
Major Civil Jet Fuel grades Jet A-1 Jet A-1 is a kerosine grade of fuel suitable for most turbine engined aircraft. It has a flash point minimum of 38°C (100°F) and a freeze point minimum of –47°C.
It is widely available outside the U.S.A. The main specifications for Jet A-1 grade (see below) are the UK specification DEF STAN 91-91 (Jet A-1) NATO code F-35, (formerly DERD 2494) and the ASTM specification D 1655 (Jet A-1).
Jet A is a kerosine grade fuel, normally only available in the U.S.A. It has the same flash point as Jet A-1 but a higher freeze point minimum (–40°C). It is supplied against the ASTM D 1655 (Jet A) specification. Jet A is used within the United States by domestic and international airlines.
Jet B is a distillate comprising naphtha and kerosine fractions. It can be used as an alternative to Jet A-1, but because it is more difficult to handle (higher flammability), there is minimal demand and availability for this grade of fuel. The only significant area of use is in very cold climates, like northern Canada, where its better cold weather performance is important. Jet B is specified by ASTM D 6615, but in Canada it is supplied against the Canadian Specification CAN/CGSB 3.23.
Military Jet Fuel grades
JP-4 used to be the primary jet fuel for the US Air Force but was phased out in the 1990s because of safety problems. A few air forces around the world still use it but there is very little production. JP-4 is the military equivalent of Jet B with the addition of corrosion inhibitor and anti-icing additives; it meets the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-DTL-5624U Grade JP-4. The UK Military specification for this grade is DEF STAN 91-88 AVTAG/FSII (formerly
DERD 2454), where FSII stands for Fuel System Icing Inhibitor. NATO Code F-40.
JP-5 is a high flash point kerosine meeting the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-DTL-5624U Grade JP-5. The UK Military specification for this grade is DEF STAN 91-86 AVCAT/FSII (formerly DERD 2452). This is primarily jet fuel for use in aircraft carriers. NATO Code F-44.
JP-8 is the military equivalent of Jet A-1 with the addition of corrosion inhibitor and anti-icing additives; it meets the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-DTL-83133G. It is the dominant military jet fuel grade for NATO airforces. The UK also has a specification for this grade namely DEF STAN 91-87 AVTUR/FSII (formerly DERD 2453). NATO Code F-34.
JP-8 +100 is JP-8 fuel to which has been added an approved thermal stability improver additive. It meets the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-DTL-83133G and is widely used by the USAF in their fighter and trainer wings. NATO Code F-37.
Trusted Aviation Fuel, Aviation Gasoline (Avgas) Turbine Fuel (Jet Fuel) Suppliers
World Oil Traders – Trusted fuel suppliers of Aviation Gasoline (Avgas) Turbine Fuel (Jet Fuel), petrochemical products and derivatives:
- M100/Fuel Oil GOST 10585-75/99/2013
- D6 Virgin Diesel Bunker Fuel
- D2 Diesel Fuel/EN 590 GOST R 52368-2005
- D2 Gasoil L0.2/62 GOST 305-82
- Fuel Oil 380 CST
- Jet Fuel (JP54)/Aviation Kerosene
- #95 Octane
- Crude Oil (Heavy & Light)
- Russian Export Blend Crude Oil R.E.B.C.O. GOST 51858-2002
- Jet A1
This grade is intended to comply with the same aircraft approvals as the original motor
gasoline (mogas) Supplementary Type Certificate (STC) approvals, but with better compositional and performance control. It is aimed at the low compression ratio engines
which do not need the high octane of Avgas 100 and could be designed to run on unleaded fuel. Avgas UL82 is specified in ASTM D 6227. Unlike other Avgas specifications, ASTM D6227 allows the use of some non-hydrocarbon components used in mogas, such as ethers, but, unlike mogas specifications, alcohols are not permitted. Avgas UL82 is dyed purple.
This is a relatively new grade added to ASTM D6227, driven by the need for some light
sport engines to have a higher octane fuel than Avgas UL82. Avgas UL82 is dyed yellow.
Compositionally this grade is somewhat comparable with Avgas 100LL but with a zero lead
content, which results in a lower octane rating of 91MON. Avgas UL91 is specified in ASTM
D7547. Avgas UL91 differs principally from both Avgas UL87 and UL82 not only in the
higher octane rating, but in lower vapour pressure (49kPa max compared with 60kPa max
in ASTM D6227) and that oxygenates such as ethers are not permitted. In common with all
other current Avgas specifications, ASTM D7547 does not permit the use of alcohols such as ethanol. Avgas UL91 is dyed orange.